Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Can we identify a compound that could be added to spermatozoa in vitro Assignment

Can we identify a compound that could be added to spermatozoa in vitro to enhance their motility - Assignment Example In particular, sperm motility is an important parameter because it indicates the integrity of the sperm tail and axoneme structures as well as the status of mitochondrial metabolic machinery (Saharkhiz et al., 2013). The World Health Organization uses a 40% cut off as the lower limit of progressive sperm motility. Although the exact cause of asthenospermia is not clear, there is growing evidence that it may arise due to hyper-viscosity of semen, varicoceles, autoimmunity of the sperm cell, and necrospermia resulting from immotile cilia (Kartagener) syndrome (Saharkhiz et al., 2013). Overall, reduced sperm motility indicates epididymal or testicular failure that can be caused by various factors. Currently, treatment of male infertility has focused mainly on the traditional in vitro fertilization (IVF) approach and newer interventions such as micro-epididymal sperm aspirations and microsurgical fertilization. However, these techniques are uncommon in andrological practice. Current research efforts in this area focus on the use of chemical stimulation of spermatozoa. A number of chemicals can stimulate sperm motility including the addition of compounds known to exhibit phosphodiesterase inhibition (PDEI) activity to enhance sperm motility in vitro without compromising sperm morphology and function. PDEIs are a class of related compounds such as pentoxifylline (PTX) that selectively catalyze the hydrolysis of 3’ phosphate bond in cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate (cAMP) phosphate or cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate (cGMP). In one of the pioneering studies on in vitro stimulation of sperm motility, Shen (1991) demonstrated that Pentoxifylline (PTX) increases motility (velocit y) of ejaculated human spermertozoa both in in vitro aesthenozoospermic samples in oral therapy. Related studies have shown that PTX added in sperm suspensions increases sperm motion within 10 days with the motility characteristics persisting

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